R & D


iron oxide

iron oxide

Manufacturing Process The Laux process Reaction of black: 9 Fe + 4 C6H5NO2 + 4 H2O 3 Fe3O4 + 4 C6H5NH2 Reaction of yellow: 2 Fe + C6H5NO2 + 2 H2O 2 FeO(OH) + C6H5NH2 Reaction of red: 2 Fe3O4 + ½ O2 3 Fe2O3 Initially, the Laux process was exclusively used to manufacture aniline (C6H5NH2) from nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2). Only when in 1925 the chemist, Dr Laux, found out that the iron oxide, being a by-product of this reaction, could be used, subject to certain chemical conditions, as an iron oxide pigment with extremely high colour strength. This process is primarily used for black iron oxide (e.g. Black 330), however, the reaction to get iron oxide yel ...
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Wet Film Guage

Wet Film Guage

Place a comb perpendicular to and touching the substrate. Hold the comb in position and wait a few seconds until the teeth are wet. Remove the comb from the film. The wet film thickness lies between the biggest value ‘coated’ or ‘wet’ tooth and the smallest value ‘uncoated’ or ‘dry’ tooth. ...
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Organics vs. Inorganics – Are they different?

Organics vs. Inorganics – Are they different?

Organic pigments are synthetic materials based on carbon usually derived from petrochemicals. They generally are not stable at elevated temperatures and have partial solubility in strong solvents, but do not dissolve in water. Inorganic pigments are metal salts and oxides, some natural and some synthetic, that generally are stable at elevated temperatures and do not dissolve in solvents. Due to their stable chemical structures, most inorganic pigments have better weatherability, dispersibility and opacity than organic pigments, however they will typically have lower chromaticity and tinctorial strength. ...
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Film and Sheet Extrusion Magazine - Jan/Feb 2020

Film and Sheet Extrusion Magazine - Jan/Feb 2020

http://www.filmandsheet.com/Resources/PDF/MP/AMI_Digital_Magazines_Media_Pack_FSE_web.pdf ...
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Toxicity of Azo Dyes in Pharmaceutical Industry

Toxicity of Azo Dyes in Pharmaceutical Industry

Azo compounds represent about two thirds of all synthetic dyes. Their usage in pharmaceutical industry has many purposes. One of the most important is coloring of pharmaceutical agents which improves their easy identification. Azo dyes often used in manufacturing of pharmaceuticals are: E102 Tartrazine, E110 Sunset Yellow FCF, Ponceau 4R (Cochineal Red A), Azorubine (Carmoisine), Amaranth, E133 Brilliant Blue and E129 Allura Red. Many azo dyes show carcinogenic and mutagenic activity, and they can provoke allergic reactions. Generally, toxicity of ingredients grows with the increase of benzene rings in their structure. Carcinogenicity of azo dyes directly depends on the structure of molec ...
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